Saskatoon useful properties
Saskatoon - shrub or tree 2-3 m in height Young shoots tomentose-oggusheny..Leaves simple, alternate, on the edge serrated, dark-green, pale green below;Young coated gray-white tomentose pubescence.In autumn the leaves turn red.Flowers regular, white or cream, arranged in corymbose racemes at the ends of shoots.It blooms in April and May.Fruit - round, first red when mature - black or red-purple with a waxy bloom, sweet and pleasant taste.Fruiting abundant and annually.Ripen fruit shortly before frosts.
In our country, only one kind of common irgi that grows in the wild in the Crimea and the Caucasus, and to the northern regions of Russia.Widespread as culture Saskatoon received an oval, this shrub grows well in the suburbs.In
its fruit and 12% sugar, about 1% organic acids, fruit ripening, as the amount of sugar increases almost 2-fold, and organic acids - are gradually reduced.
From P-active substances Saskatoon contains a large amount of anthocyanins - to 3.75%.The composition of carotene includ
irgi Most species native to North America.
known about 25 species of fruit bushes, some of whom are very hardy, which are widely used in our country, in particular pigweed Saskatoon, Canada, rotundifolia, profusely;It grows wild in central Russia, the North Caucasus and the Crimea.
Amelanchier ovalis before others has spread in the culture - in the XVI century.In Russia Amelanchier ovalis came from Europe.It is extremely taxing.
In the cold northern areas it is almost the only fruit plant, as growing where you will not meet apple, pear and plum.
root system surface, lies at a depth of 30-40 cm. Flowering in May, the flowers can withstand spring frosts to -5-7 ° C.Saskatoon samoplodnye sooner come into fruition, most crop yields after reaching 10 years of age.Saskatoon - durable plant.Some trunks live up to 20 years, the bushes - up to 60-70 years.
irgu popularly called currants for similarities irgi dried berries, raisins.In addition to fruits, irgu appreciated for outdoor decorative: it has medium-sized oval serrated leaves, gray-green in spring and orange or red in the fall.C 3-4 years of age at the same time opening of leaves appear dense brush, each of which is located at 5-8, white flowers.Saskatoon - a good honey plant.
French call irgu rock medlar ", the Germans -". Rock pear "This is due to habitat nature of the rocks and the shape of the fruit, slightly expanded from the top we Saskatoon is more reminiscent of a bird cherry, especially during the flowering period
But the main value of this shrub.. -after all the fruits that are beginning to ripen from July These dark purple color with a thick glaucous bloom, sweet and very juicy
Requirements:.. saskatoon - Culture undemanding to growing conditions, hardy (tolerates frost to -40-50° C). The terrain for irgi is not critical, although the best growth and high yields berries can be obtained only in the fertile loamy and sandy sod-podzolic, rather moist soils. Saskatoon, as well as any berry bushes, prefers illuminated areas, but notloves the hot direct sunlight
Saskatoon -.. shade tolerant and drought resistant shrub it can be planted along the fence on any soil, but better it develops on the fertile soil with a neutral reaction medium.
Composition: irgi contain fruit sugar (mainly glucose and fructose), a slight amount of organic acids, many substances and vitamin C and vitamin P action.Astringency and astringent berries impart tannins.Slightly acidic fruit taste, since little organic acids are, with nearly half of this amount falls on apple.The fruits are rich in vitamin A. They also contain iodine.
Landing: equipment irgi planting is no different from planting other berry bushes.Method preplant soil preparation is the same as for currants and gooseberries.Planting irgu 1-2-year-old seedlings in the spring or autumn at 5-8 cm deeper than they grew in the nursery, for regrowth of a larger number of strong basal shoots.The usual scheme of planting irgi 4-5 x 2-3 m. It is also often planted by the type of hedge in a staggered manner, with the distance between plants in a series of 0.5 to 1.8 m. Planting should be done in the deep furrows.On the plot is enough to plant 1-2 plants by assigning each about 16 m2 on loamy fertile soils and up to 6-9 m2 on the poorer sandy loam.Seedlings are placed in the planting hole wide depth of 50-80 and 30-40 cm. After planting, the plants watered (8-10 liters of water in the landing pit), mulching the soil surface with the same soil, peat or humus, and the elevated part shortened to 10 cm,leaving above the soil level of 4-5 well-developed buds.
Amelanchier ovalis, or ordinary, - shrub or small tree height of 2-4 m leaves are ovate to rounded, dark green above and paler below, dense, coarse, serrated or toothed to.half.Blossoms in mid-May.Flowers white, in straight 5-8 color-postglacial dense racemes.Fruits (from rounded to obratnogrushevidnyh) 1-1.5 cm in diameter, in the ripening period (second half of July) red when mature purple, almost black, with a bluish waxy bloom, edible, with juicy sweet flesh and a distinctive flavor, not ripensimultaneously.
Saskatoon pigweed - a tall plant (shrub or tree 3-6 m in height).The leaves are ovate, sharp-toothed.Blossoms in May, 2-3 days earlier irgi rotundifolia.The flowers are white or bright pink petals in dense erect racemes.Fruits (6-8 mm in diameter) ripens about a week later, purplish-black, with a bluish tinge, edible, the taste is reminiscent of fruits irgi rotundifolia.
Amelanchier canadensis - the most strong-form (its height ranges from 2 to 18 m).From other kinds of different thin drooping branches, forming in the open shirokokrugluyu crown.The leaves are oblong, large, thin, serrate-dentate on the edge.It blooms in mid-May.The flowers are white or yellowish-white, in straight or drooping racemes.Spring leaves and pinkish silver-white tomentose pubescence strong.In the autumn the plant changes to intense red outfit.The fruits are round, large (up to 1.7 cm in diameter), dark purple, almost black, with a bluish bloom, sweet and juicy, very high taste qualities.They ripen in late July - early August.
Care: in the first 3 years of the plant must be timely soil loosening, weeding and fertilizing at the same rates as under the currants.With the onset of fruiting on the 4th year, you may need to harness the bushes with various materials to prevent strong bending under the weight of the crop shoots.With age, the stems become stable, and there is no need to be tied.Very responsive to fertilizer, so in the second year after planting, to enhance its growth or are fed nitrogen fertilizer solution bird droppings.In the autumn digging make superphosphate (100 g) and potassium salt (50, on the bush).
Propagated Saskatoon alone root shoots and seeds.From the largest, ripe berries and selected seeds were sown in the flower bed at a depth of 1-2 cm in July and August.This plant is resistant to pests and diseases.But sometimes on the edge of the leaf caterpillar irgovoy gracillariidae doing narrow passages-personnel mines, as caterpillar currant leaf roller in the early summer turns the leaf plate in the form of tubes.
Pruning: irgu better form in the form of a bush mnogostovolnogo strong basal shoots.Weak shoots are cut out completely.
In the first 2-3 years after planting, leave all the strong zero escapes, and in subsequent years - 2-3 escape.Formed shrub should have 10-15 branches of different ages.Subsequent pruning is to remove the excessive amount of basal shoots, the weak, the sick, the old and broken branches, replacing them with an appropriate amount of strong basal shoots.With the deterioration of growth of branches 1 time in 3-4 years light renewal pruning is carried out for 2-4-year-old wood.For ease of maintenance and harvesting height limit pruning.
When pruning a bush remove excess root growth, leaving no more than 2-3 per year escapes further as part of the bush, just in the bush should be 10-15 trunks.Plant height is limited by pruning at 2-2.5 m;annually apply periodic renewal pruning.Saskatoon good regrowth after cutting and self-growing root suckers.
Harvest: fruits have irgi ripen not simultaneously on the hand, it is inconvenient for the harvest, but lends a certain piquancy to their color, starting with the largest fruit in the base of the inflorescence-brush they consistently change color from red to dark purple.Harvesting is carried out in several stages as the ripening of berries.Berries for fresh consumption can be stored for 2-3 days at room conditions.When stored in a refrigerator at O ° C, this period is greatly increased.Large damage to crops cause the birds, especially snowbird.Birds eat the fruits begin long before their maturity.
Medicinal raw materials are the fruits, leaves, bark and flowers.Fruits take for the prevention of hypo-and avitaminosis, rinse in a tincture of the fruits of angina.From the leaves and bark are preparing the infusion and decoctions for gastro-intestinal diseases.
fruits are used for the prevention and treatment of hypo-and avitaminosis.In folk medicine irgi juice is used for rinse with angina.Infusion of flowers has a tonic effect on the heart and lowers blood pressure.
juice from freshly pressed fruit almost, but after 7-10 days of which can be pressed to 70 % juice.Thanks to valuable substances contained in fruits, Saskatoon has healing properties.The juice prevents the formation of blood clots.Berries are used for the prevention of peptic ulcer as a fixing agent and as an anti-rinse the mouth;they are a remedy for gum disease, eye diseases, useful in disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (such as anti-inflammatory agent).
irgi fruits can be used for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis (contained therein beta antagonist sitosteron cholesterol) and other cardiovascular diseases.In irge is a large number of P-active compounds having sosudoukreplyayuschim action.Therefore, elderly people recommend to use fresh fruits and juice irgi of them: it strengthens the walls of blood vessels, increases their elasticity and prevents myocardial infarction, and varicose veins.Juice irgi, has astringent properties, has long been used in folk medicine as an astringent, and the coating agent in the gastro-intestinal diseases.
Sometimes prepare medical astringent drinks from irgi mixture with wild apples and pears.The same medicinal properties has a decoction of the leaves and bark irgi, which contain a lot of tannins (a decoction made from the rate of 1 part of raw material per 10 parts water; cook in a water bath under a cover for 30 minutes, insist 15 minutes and strain).
Saskatoon has the property to normalize sleep and strengthen the body.Eating fresh fruit and juice is useful for adults and for children: it contributes to greater peace of mind and balance, enhances sleep and improves mood.
P Loda all kinds irgi eaten raw or in dried form, as a substitute for raisins.From the ripe fruit is prepared jam, jelly, candy, jelly and wine quality taste and a pleasant reddish-purple color.In compotes and jams irgu used in a mixture with other berries and fruits.
irgi juice - 1 liter;sugar - 500 g
The juice from irgi add sugar to dissolve, bring to a boil and cook for 15-20 minutes.Ready syrup pour into sterile bottles, cork and store in a cool place.
juice irgi.The berries are washed, squeeze the juice using a juicer.You can add red currant juice, bring to a boil, pour into sterilized jars, roll covers.
Morse of irgi
juice from berries irgi -400 g;-200 g sugar;-1l water.
berries are washed, knead and squeeze the juice from them.Marc pour water and boil for 10 minutes.Broth drain, mix with pressed juice, add sugar, stir and leave for 10-12 hours.Serve chilled.
irgi Berries 1 kg;sugar - 1.2 kg;water - 400 g
berries go through and rinse.Cook the sugar syrup, pour them berries and cook until done.Ready jam filled into clean jars, close lid or parchment paper.
Marmalade from irgi
Puree berries irgi - 1 kg;sugar - 500 g
Ripe berries irgi blanch for 2-3 minutes, discard in a colander and drain the water.Then wipe them through a sieve and add to the resulting sugar mashed.Stir and cook for 15 minutes, hot filled into sterile jars and close the lid.
irgi berries - 200 g;milk - 400 g
irgi berries go, wash and sprinkle with sugar.Allow to stand for 1 hour, then pour the cold milk and bring to the table.Separately submit crunchy cornflakes.
From berries irgi cook delicious compote.Berries (400 g) was put into boiling syrup (8 glasses of water - 60 g sugar) again brought to reflux and cooled.The compote can add 1 g of citric acid.
irgi Dried fruit - a great component of compote of dried fruits, which provides a nice deep red color of the finished product.Dried fruits irgi used as a substitute for currants and raisins.A good jam is obtained from two parts irgi, one of the black currant and two parts sugar.