Useful and therapeutic properties of calendula ( marigold )
Calendula (marigold) - annual herb to 60 cm tall.The generic name derives from the Latin calendae - the first day of each month (hence the Russian - Calendar).The plant long blooms, buds are disclosed in the morning, as if announcing the beginning of the day and closed at night.Rhode calendula has about twenty species, but in the culture used only two: a little-known in our country, calendula field and is very popular in our Calendula officinalis.
Stems erect, densely leafy, branching at the top of glandular.Leaves alternate, lower leaves petiolate, upper - sessile, semiamplexicaul inversely ovate, oblong or lanceolate.Taproot branched.The flowers are small, exterior - reed, yellow or orange-reddish, inner - tube, darker in color, are collected in single basket.Receptacle flat, bare.The fruit - sickle or kryuchkovatoobraznye achenes, winged, with the keel on the inside, blonde, lumpy, with a spout.It blooms from June to October.The fruits ripen in August.
Medicinal raw materials are baskets (effectiv
collection baskets produced during flowering manually.The collected raw material is dried at least 3-4 hours after collection, to avoid damage and rewarming.Drying is done in the shade in the attics or in the dryer.Shelf life of raw materials for 1 year.
Calendula in the garden
Pharmaceutical preparations of calendula, which is now more than enough, there are not too cheap and not everyone has the opportunity to purchase them.However, do not despair, because the nails, in contrast to many other plants can be grown in your own garden or replenish their collection of home colors.The more so because much trouble for this is not required.
need warmth and moisture to
calendula Calendula officinalis is not in vain considered to cold-resistant plants.Although the origin of this plant is the south, it is capable of transferring sharp fluctuations in day and night temperatures, normally bear fruit in Siberia and Central Yakutia and even tolerate short-term freezing.Calendula continues to bloom until late autumn, sometimes even in the snow.
to normal life this plant is quite enough temperature + 8 + 12 ° C - in the afternoon, and from +4 and +10 ° C - at night.
seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of + 2-4 ° C, but it is better, according to some observations, germinate at temperatures from +15 to +20 ° C Rising.
But the heat and dryness of the soil cause calendula stress: the plant starts to grow at an accelerated pace, the flowering of its sharply reduced yields and reduced terry inflorescences.Of course, this plant is so unpretentious, that the heat transfer and does not wither, but his beauty will fade.It is therefore desirable to develop marigolds in cool and damp conditions, especially during budding.In dry weather, the plant should be watered frequently to flowers not crushed and have not lost doubleness.The soil in the pots to be evenly moist but not wet.
Calendula - photophilous plant, it grows better in open sunny places.Grow calendula can be on beds, in a cool place or in a greenhouse without heating.What matters is only an abundance of light and air circulation.It is established that the reduction of light intensity causes an increase in plant height and flowering time of its elongation.
best primer for
Calendula Calendula can grow in different soils - forest, wetlands, sand.However, the best soil for it - the fertile black soil.The plant prefers moist well, open sunny places.
If you want to plant calendula on the site, the soil should be prepared in advance.In the autumn of land to dig and make 3-4 kg of manure, 40 g of superphosphate and 10 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 square meter of 30-40 grams of granulated superphosphate per square meter.
for growing marigold in boxes on the balcony enough to take ground "garden soil", half mixed with simple, unfertilized soil.Soil can also be prepared from 2 parts horticultural loam to 1 part sand or perlite.It is useful to mix in the compost mixture.
in a flower shop is on sale special primer designed for containers and hanging flower beds.It added to the gel, the water accumulates, and cork to reduce the weight of the basket.The flower beds are planted marigold seedlings at the age of two weeks.
Seeding is best done in early April, but you can do it and before winter usually seeds marigold sown directly into the ground, but if your windows face north, at the end of the winter can be grown seedlings: a powerful branched plant roots can easily be restored after atransplant.
If you sow marigolds summer, autumn calendula impress you with unusually large flowers wonderfully saturated colors.
seeds sown in the furrows at a depth of 2-3 cm. The distance between the grooves should be 30-40 cm. On one square meter of seeded 1 to 1.5 g of seeds.
At home, the seeds are planted marigolds in pots 20 cm in diameter, filled with ordinary soil for houseplants with good drainage.
For sowing is best to select the smallest seeds of the central flower baskets, as they provide the plant with a large number of terry inflorescences.
Calendula repels harmful insects
Biologically active substances marigold - resins, organic acids, saponins - contribute to the improvement of the soil and the growing crops on it.Therefore, marigold planting itself will benefit your site.
known that calendula not love and fear are known pests of plants such as asparagus treschalka caterpillar hawk five-point, as well as the ill-fated Colorado potato beetle.Many growers have long noticed that kolrradsky beetle can not stand calendula.Perhaps it scares the smell of flowers or isolation from the roots shoots.Therefore, if you want to build a good crop of potatoes, then black, and marigolds.And it should be done as follows: - Marigold seeds sow potato lines around the site and at the same time along the diagonal.
If calendula planted under fruit trees or near cabbage, and you can save them from many diseases and horticultural pests.
Phases of growth and development of calendula
are the following phases of growth and development of calendula.Shoots
, depending on the temperature and humidity of the soil, appearing 7-20 days after seeding.During the period of vegetative growth is observed intense plant growth.Start of flowering phase - in 32-44 days after emergence (end of June - beginning of July).The flowering phase is a resumption of intensive biomass growth due to strong branching and the formation of new stems.
Flowering time from marigold bud depends on the location on the plant: the lower the order of branching and higher tier of the escape, the earlier the flowering and the longer it is.
Calendula as a medicinal raw
The cultivation of marigold for medicinal plant inflorescences systematically removed, prolonging the flowering stage until the end of the growing season, causing rapid formation of inflorescences on new shoots.If you do not remove the inflorescence, the plant drastically reduces the rate of formation of new flowering shoots, inflorescence size decreases.
The flowers of this plant can be harvested throughout the summer.Collect svezheraspustivshiesya baskets, cutting at the very base of the flower.Dry them immediately after harvesting, spreading a thin layer under a canopy, in the attic or in the air, but without access to direct sunlight.The first days of the flowers need to stir.Typically, air drying takes a week.If the dryer used, the temperature does not exceed 40-45 ° C.Drying is considered complete if the pressure on the inflorescence they decay.
flowers are stored in paper bags or cardboard boxes up to 2 years.Time flies fast, so on the package or put down box blank date.
calendula Store in a tin container 1 year.
Calendula flower garden in your
beds can be used for varieties of marigold any height, preferably with other plants of the same beds.
For small areas more suitable curbs.This narrow (10 to 40 cm) strip of colors bordering the track pad.To use undersized curbs (30 cm) compact varieties of marigold, such as Calypso, Gitana Molly Fiesta Gitana, Yellow and Orange Gitana Gitana.
seeding in a certain order different varieties of Calendula, you can create a fashionable and beautiful yellow-orange lawn.Identify a place on the site and the area that you can allocate to each class and for the whole of the lawn.
When selecting a location, consider the requirements of calendula to illumination.
If you have enough seeds, calculate the required number of seeds of each variety, to take the selection area.
Location varieties can be any - to your taste.Get your creative side!So you can try yourself in one of the new professions - landscape designer.
If nails do not open till seven o'clock in the morning, it will rain or thunderstorm.This sign - is not superstition, but a fact which can be confirmed by many growers: marigolds really close before a storm.
believed that calendula has magical powers.Flowers collected in the afternoon, when the hottest and strong sun, able to comfort the heart and gets rid of feelings.
The people believed that if you hang a garland of marigolds on the door jambs, it is possible to avoid the evil eye and evil forces.
If you suffer from insomnia or have nightmares, scatter flowers of calendula under the bed, and then your dream will come back to normal.Moreover, you will visit the prophetic dreams.
If you look at the sun cups marigold, you will improve vision.To
case decided in your favor, popular wisdom advises - carry in your pocket marigold flowers.
marigold flower baskets are soluble in water, its activity depends on the temperature of the medium, the optimum temperature - not more than 40 degrees.
marigold flowers are contained in the essential oil, kalenulin (gelatinous material), a bitter substance, a yellow colorant (carotene, lycopene), volatile, moreover, malic and salicylic acids, saponin, proteins, mucus.
Experimental studies have established that preparations of calendula have a calming effect on the central nervous system, reduces reflex excitability, when administered intravenously, cause a decrease in blood pressure, strengthening the heart, increasing the amplitude and slowing heart rate.Significantly expressed bactericidal properties of calendula against a number of pathogens (especially staphylococci and streptococci).
In practical medicine infusions and tinctures of calendula is used for the treatment of gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcers, liver and biliary tract, diseases of the heart, accompanied by arrhythmia, hypertension and menopause.
used calendula blossoms like antispasmodic, stimulant with C vitamin deficiency (scurvy) and against hysteria, with low blood pressure.Calendula
part of the tablets "CN" (powder, 0.25 g of calendula flowers and 0.1 g of nicotinic acid) which is used as a symptomatic treatment for advanced forms of cancer.Under the influence of pills "KN" in cancer patients, especially gastric cancer, a decrease of intoxication, the elimination of dyspepsia (belching, nausea, vomiting, feeling of heaviness in the region of the pancreas), improve appetite and sleep.
Externally calendula is used in the form of lotions, ointments, gargles, douches, and patches for the treatment of wounds as a means to prevent and reduce the formation of pus, and as anti-inflammatory.
Physicians prescribe a number of countries on 20-25 drops of tincture of calendula for receipt of various gastrointestinal diseases: gastritis, colitis, enterocolitis, mark it with the ability to enhance the appetite.According to foreign authors, this drug has powerful medicinal properties with a stomach ulcer, a long time does not stop vomiting, spasms of the esophagus and stomach spastic conditions.We apply it in inflammatory diseases of the liver and gall bladder (hepatitis, cholecystitis, as well as diseases of the spleen).
combined drug - 200 mg of powder, marigold and 50 mg nicotinic acid - recommended for use inside as an adjunct in the treatment of chronic debilitating diseases of the body;for beriberi, dystrophies associated with poor digested and absorbed the functions of the digestive tract;enteritis, chronic dysentery and ulcerative colitis;dystrophy associated with a great expenditure of vitamins in the body, general sepsis and chronic suppuration;with fistulas, ulcers, purulent pyelonephritis, cystitis, abscess, skin cancer, cancer and sexually transmitted diseases.
widely used extracts of calendula (1 hr. Teaspoon per cup of water) in the treatment of inflammatory processes of the oral cavity (inflammation of the gums, mucosal ulcers, thrush in infants, alveolar Pioro).It is recommended to take an infusion into your mouth and hold for a few minutes.Strong infusion of calendula (3 tbsp. Chopped flowers per cup of boiling water to brew a tea and infuse for 2 hours) is recommended to rinse the mouth after brushing your teeth after every meal and at bedtime.
gentle bitterness infusion causes salivation (saliva) and helps cleanse the oral mucosa.The same infusion is used for rinsing the nose and throat with tonsillitis and chronic rhinitis.Calendula tincture for gargling combined with sulfa drugs and antibiotics.
Calendula is also used dermofitii (fungal skin disease).In this case, it is recommended to take baths, make lotions (folded in 3-4 layers of gauze to moisten infusion) to the affected area of the body fungus.
established that tincture of calendula flowers inactivate influenza viruses, so it is advisable to use it as a preventive and therapeutic agent during a flu epidemic.For these purposes, the infusion is prepared - 10 g of calendula 200 ml of boiling water - filtered and undiluted, in the form of heat, rinsing the mouth and nasopharynx.
In folk medicine, decoction inflorescences drink as a diuretic in diseases of the urinary bladder (stones and sand in it), diseases of the stomach, intestines (ulcers, spasms), rickets, scrofula, as a means of retarding the disease process in cancer, for dizziness -coughing, pain in the liver, to prevent miscarriage, after an injury, uterine bleeding, women's diseases, fever, colds, from diseases caused by heavy lifting;externally - as an adjunct for the treatment of cancer, inflammatory diseases of the mouth, eye diseases (conjunctivitis, blepharitis) in gynecology (cervical erosion), for quick healing of wounds, with cracks in the anus, with trihomonadnyh inflammations, skin cracks, warts, corn, barley, acne and so on. n.
it should be added that the nails have a healing effect on wounds caused by frostbite.
Tincture 25% -I: 30 drops 3 times a day.
Flask 1: 10 g per 200 ml, 2-Z.spoon 3 times a day with ulcers, vitamin deficiency C (scurvy) and against hysteria.
Flask 2: 20 g per 200 ml, 1 tbsp.spoon 3 times a day - to apply in the same way as the infusion 1.
tincture for lotions: 1 teaspoon to a glass of water..
tincture for enemas and douches: the same glass of water.
mixture: calendula flowers, lavender, elder, mallow, 10 g;6-8 g of a mixture of 200 ml of boiling water, leave for 15 minutes and add a sweet syrup from maple.Take 1/2 cup 3 times a day before meals.
tablets or powder: 1 / 4-1 / 2 tablet 2-3 times a day for 10 minutes before eating.
Ointment 5 g of tincture, and 10 g of petroleum jelly (to mix).
Diseases of the digestive system
Gastritis Acute gastritis emphasis is primarily on the anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties of calendula preparations, as well as their ability to heal the affected areas of the mucous membrane.Applied courses of a duration of 2-3 weeks with the same intervals: first course - in the acute period, then 2 courses for prevention of subsequent exacerbations.l.
Method.Cook until tender.l.Store in a cool place.