Useful properties of raspberries
Raspberry ordinary (Rubus idaeus L.) - long shrub of the family Rosaceae.The generic name derives from the Latin ruber - red and characterizes the color of the fruit.Idaeus Species definition is related to the geographical name of a mountain range on the island of Crete.
Stems erect, leaves are trifoliate, feathery, white small flowers are collected in inflorescence.Fruits prefabricated drupes red or yellow.
Botanical description. Semishrub height of 1.5 m. In the first year of life, forming a non-bearing stems.It bears fruit in the second year of life.The stems of the first year herbaceous, cylindrical, erect with drooping tip, glaucous, have numerous thin spikes of reddish or reddish-brown color.In autumn they drevesneyut and blossom and bear fruit, and then die in the following year.Each year, from the rhizome of raspberries grow new stems.Leaves alternate, odd-pinnate, with 3-7 (usually 3-5), serrated, on top of almost naked, from below tomentose leaves.The final leaf is oblong-ovate with pointe
Geographical distribution. Raspberry is known to mankind for a long time.There is evidence of a raspberry, relating to the III century BC.More than a thousand years it is in culture, but the raspberry varietal appeared only in the XVI-XVII centuries, and in Russia - from the XVIII century.Throughout bred in the gardens, meets on glades of forests, roadsides.
Malina does not tolerate heat and drought, so it is more prevalent in areas with temperate and cool climate.
grows mostly on forest edges, glades, meadows, among other shrubs along river banks.He likes moderately moist places.Widely cultivated as one of the best berry bushes.Harvested in large quantities as a medicinal raw materials, as well as for the needs of the food industry.
main raspberry culture areas are the Moscow, Voronezh, Lipetsk, Kursk, Gorky, Ivanovo region, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania, the Urals.It is grown in a number of regions of Siberia (comes to Lake Baikal).With the high snow cover and winter shelter bush tolerates frost.
collection and drying. Collect ripe healthy fruit of wild raspberries.Collection is produced only in dry weather (wet fruit quickly exposed to damage).Harvest fruits without receptacle.They are collected in baskets, Lubyanka, tomato boxes, preventing deformation of the fruit.After collecting raspberries immediately dried.First fruits podvyalivayut the sun, spreading a thin layer on the mat and then finally dried in an oven or an oven at a temperature no higher than 50 ° (better at 35-40 °).
Medicinal raw .Dried fruits of raspberry teams (Fructus Rubi idaei) have a grayish-red color, a weak specific smell and pleasant sour-sweet taste.In accordance with GOST 3525-75 in the raw materials received at the procurement centers, the moisture content must not exceed 15%;blackened fruits are not more than 8%;fruit not separated from the receptacle peduncles and not more than 2%;other parts of the raspberry plants (twigs, stalks, leaves) not more than 0.5%;fruit agglomerated into lumps, no more than 4%;organic and mineral impurities not more than 0.5%.
already in the III century BCGreek scholar Cato wrote about raspberries.Linnaeus gave the plant the botanical Latin name, based on the story of Pliny the Elder (1st century BC. E.) Of wild raspberries that grew on Mount Ida.In the IV century BCRoman scholar named Palladius raspberry garden plants.In the Ancient Rus raspberry fruits were used from time immemorial, as reported in the epics, tales and proverbs.By the middle of the XIX century in Russia cultivated many varieties of raspberries.
chemical composition. Raspberry Fruits contain sugar (3,6-5,7% of raw material), organic acids (1,36-2,09%), pectin (0,45- 0,71%), and various vitamins:carotene (0.2- 0.6 mg / 100 g wet weight), ascorbic acid (12-45 mg), vitamin B2 (0.05 mg), nicotine (0.6 mg) and folic acid (6 mg /100 g).Among many other fruits and berries raspberry stands high in folic acid (a B vitamin), which plays a big role in hematopoiesis processes.Raspberry Fruits
about 10% sugars, mainly glucose and fructose, organic acids (salicylic, malic, citric, formic, etc.), minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, etc.).In them to 45% of vitamin C, it leaves much more than in fruits, vitamins A, B, PP, as well as beta-sitosterol having protivoskleroticheskim properties and essential oil.The seeds contain up to 15.6% fatty oil and phytosterol.
raspberry Sahara represented mainly glucose and fructose, sucrose, very little.In the composition of organic acids - malic, citric, and small amounts of salicylic and formic.
fruits rich in potassium and iron compounds, also contain manganese salts, zinc, cobalt and other elements.
In comparison with other berries raspberries somewhat poorer flavonoids total content of 42-85 mg / 100 g of crude material.Among the flavonoids isolated giperozid, izokvertsitrin, astragalin, kaempferol-rhamnoside et al.
found in fruits 0-sitosterol and other phytosterols, which have preventive and therapeutic effects in atherosclerosis.Found mucus, tannins and essential oil, which is due to the presence of fruit flavor.
raspberries - ancient and very common therapeutic tool.Their medicinal properties were known in ancient Greece and Rome.
Fresh and dried fruits, and canned fruits of raspberry (compote, jam, jam, juice) are used as an antipyretic and diaphoretic for colds.Also has diuretic and mild expectorant.From the dried fruits are prepared infusion: two tablespoons spoon berries pour a glass of boiling water, draw for 15-20 minutes, then strain.Within an hour should drink 1-2 glasses of hot infusion.
Raspberry juice with sugar consumed as a refreshing drink in feverish conditions, and the syrup is added to medicines to improve their taste and aroma.
In folk medicine, a number of countries (Bulgaria, Poland, the USSR, Austria, and others.) Also used medicinal properties of raspberry leaves.So, in the GDR infusions and decoctions of leaves taken for diarrhea as an astringent, infusion is used for rinsing the mouth and throat, stomatitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis.A similar application is found in the leaves and Bulgarian folk medicine.Furthermore, the broth (raw material 6 g per 200 ml of boiling water) is used for irrigation and lotions for skin diseases.
Austria prepare a drink from the leaves and raspberry fruit, which take as vitamins, cough and expectorant.In some areas of our country infusions of leaves and flowers are used externally for hemorrhoids, rectal fissures and female diseases.Broth flowers treat conjunctivitis, blepharitis, and erysipelas.Ointment with fresh raspberries leaves is considered a good remedy for acne and skin rashes.
In folk medicine, fruits are also used for hypertension and atherosclerosis.
Since ancient times, raspberries is known as a medicinal plant.Medicinal raw materials are the fruits, in folk medicine, in addition, - flowers, leaves, iehealthily almost everything - fruit, leaves, flowers, roots.Harvested fruits podvyalivayut in the sun, and then dried in ovens.Store raw materials in a well-ventilated, dry room, on the drafts.
Tea from dried fruit - the perfect remedy for the common cold.In raspberries fresh useful for poor appetite, gastric and intestinal diseases such as anti-inflammatory agent, as well as for removal of intoxication.A decoction or infusion of leaves is drunk in a strong indigestion, excessive menstruation, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, is used as a gargle for sore throat.
decoction of the flowers has anti-inflammatory and detoxifying effect, so it is used externally in the form of lotions in inflammation of the eyes, as an internal -with women's diseases, hemorrhoids.
Even in ancient times was considered a healing tool raspberries.Dried fruits were used in febrile diseases, and flowers in the form of infusions serve as an antidote for bites of snakes, scorpions, bees, wasps.
In scientific medicine dried raspberries used as a diaphoretic for colds and as a mild diuretic, the flu, sore throat, and others.
From fresh raspberries cooked syrup, which is added to medicines to improve the taste of drugs includes raspberries in the teas number1 and № 2.
In folk medicine, raspberry ordinary (flowers, leaves, fruits) used as anti-sclerotic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and vysokovitaminnoe remedy for hypertension, atherosclerosis, as a diaphoretic - the flu, colds, chronic rheumatism, fever and measles.Externally a decoction is used for rinsing with sore throat.From dry raspberry leaf decoction prepared for lotions and fresh crushed leaves make an ointment, which is used in acne.
In addition, raspberry fruit is used to improve appetite, regulating bowel activity as antiemetic, hemostatic for stomach, intestinal bleeding, an expectorant for bronchitis.
as drug raspberries used in ancient Greece and Rome.
raspberries is useful in anemia, and gastrointestinal disease, atherosclerosis, kidney disease, hypertension.Volatile raspberry harmful to S. aureus, yeast and mold spores of the fungus.
In folk medicine, the fruit juice and raspberry are used as a diaphoretic and antipyretic for colds and fever.Juice with sugar - a good refreshing drink for febrile patients.
Raspberries used both in formal and in folk medicine.Even in ancient times it was known as a valued and healing berries.A glass of raspberry juice invigorates, reduces fever with disease, increases the body's resistance to colds, improves sleep.
high content of organic acids has a positive effect on purgation, the presence of salicylic acid is useful for colds.Raspberry possess mild diuretic and choleretic properties, beneficial effect in rheumatism, liver and kidneys.
Raspberry leaves also have medicinal properties.They are part of the diuretic and choleretic mixtures infusion of them is a wonderful tea.Especially raspberry leaves are recommended for children with colds and diseases of the kidneys.
decoction of the leaves: is prepared at the rate of 1:20.20 g of dried leaves pour 2 cups water, simmer for 5-7 minutes, drain.0.5 Take 1 cup 3-4 times a day.
decoction of the flowers: 20 g of flowers pour 200 ml of water, boil for 5 minutes, drain.Take 0.5 cups three times daily.
Indications: raspberry is both a drug and a dietary means.Its use in a fresh, dry and frozen.Raspberries used as a diaphoretic for colds and as a preventive agent for metabolic disorders.Raspberries are used to improve appetite in diseases of the stomach and intestines.Raspberry leaves are used in gastritis, enteritis, colitis.
Harvesting and storage: medicinal raw materials are the fruits and leaves.The fruit is collected in process of maturing, in dry weather, when they can be easily removed from the receptacle.Dried in the sun, spread in a thin layer.Before drying the fruit podvyalivayut.Store in bags or wooden container 2 years.
Oh, and it's tricky berry!Eat it eat it seems, everything nowhere else.A hike with an hour on the raspberry bushes, in posobirali tuesok, look at the sun glowing crimson curls - and will not stand.Berries and beg in the mouth.And no thorns, no spikes are not a hindrance.
Flowering raspberry in June and July, a small nondescript whitish flowers.But really the fruit - bright red, sometimes - yellow, delicate, delicious.
raspberry thickets - an indispensable element and a garden plot, and forests of the entire European part of Russia, the Urals, Western Siberia.Growing raspberries under the forest canopy, forest edges, in the flood-plain forests.It is one of the first inhabits forest felling, burning.
Wild berries are usually smaller garden, but more aromatic, sweeter.While in the forest, much depends on the location, where the raspberry bushes.If the bushes in the sun, on a glade - they are usually small, they are small berries, but certainly before the sweet scented yes!In the shadows at the edge of the raspberry bushes above, larger berries, but they are smaller and the taste they are inferior to the solar sisters.But all the same - sweet, juicy!
in Malin smaller than other berries, sugar - 10%;basically, this is glucose, fructose, a pentose.In addition to sugars, raspberries contain 2.5% organic acids - citric, malic, tartaric, salicylic.There are iron, potassium, copper, tannins, pectin, fiber, vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, folic acid, β-sitosterol, which has anti-sclerotic action.The raspberries have coumarin - a substance, which play an important role in the prevention of heart attacks.The darker the berry, the more it coumarins.
Raspberry good and fresh, and frozen and dried.Drying is better berries - they are more fragrant, better retain their shape.Dried raspberries in warm ovens or in attics, under a tin roof.Store the dried fruit in cans or boxes.And raspberry jam is cooked, stewed fruit, make jams, jellies, juices.You will open in a gloomy winter evening jam jar - and disperse throughout the room a cheerful scent of the forest, the summer heat.Not in vain in ancient Rus they drank in the morning vzvarets of raspberries and cranberries.
Fresh raspberries well quenches thirst and improves digestion.But we must remember that patients with gout and nephritis with raspberries must be handled carefully - it has a lot of purine bases, which in large quantities can adversely affect the course of the disease.But the rest I recommend using raspberry tea as a diaphoretic and antipyretic, many times more useful and effective than multiple pills.Salicylic acid in raspberries mass, and the leaves are much larger than in the berries.Tea made from dried fruits - a great tool for colds: only the first signs of a cold - drink 2-3 cups of hot raspberry tea for an hour and, believe me, the illness as a hand lift.This medicinal tea can be present, as the berries themselves, and on the tops of raspberry shoots where there are leaves and flowers, and even immature berries.
Raspberry - an indispensable tool for scurvy, anemia, gastric pains.When the influence of alcohol they or decoctions of them have a significant sobering effect.Broth berries with honey treat measles.Raspberry lowers blood sugar, stimulates the heart function, regulates the menstrual cycle, has a calming effect.It has the property to remove allergic reactions, removes from the body, bile acids, heavy metals, radioactive elements, cholesterol.These berries normalize blood clotting, reduce the level of prothrombin.
Drink raspberry and to reduce prostate size when it is sprouting.
The Korean medicine raspberry is one of the components of the collection of medical infertility, along with psyllium seeds and Chinese magnolia vine.It is used for impotence and raspberries fruit soaked in vodka, dry on low heat, pounded in a mortar and take in the morning on a tablespoon with the top with water.
raspberry leaves and flowers are used as widely as berries.Against acne helps ointment, made from the juice of raspberry leaves.Water extract of leaves, rinse the throat with tonsillitis and throat inflammations, take them inside with acute diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, respiratory and skin diseases (rashes, acne, dermatitis).
It acts hooking with dysentery.This is an excellent diuretic and cholagogue.Take 150 g 3 times a day for 10-15 minutes before eating.Take 150 g 3 times a day for 10-15 minutes before eating.10 g of the mixture, pour a glass of boiling water, heated in a boiling water bath for 30 minutes, cool 10 minutes.Tablespoon of the mixture pour a glass of water, bring to a boil and infuse for 1 hour.Take half a cup 3 times a day.1 tbsp.l.l.1 tbsp.spoon 3 times a day.Cool.a spoon;